A significant factor in influencing business communication
tv.); personal (in the present and future tense of the present tense): Everything in the winds will ring like a pitcher (L. Kostenko); in a commanding way: In flowers all streets shout: let, let freedom live! (P. Tichina); extensive use of various types of sentences, syntactic connections, features of intonation and rhythmic melodies; all stylistic figures are fully represented (ellipse, periods, rhetorical questions, appeals, multiplicity, incoherence, etc.).
According to the genera and genres of literature, the artistic style is divided into substrates, which have their own features of the linguistic organization of the text:
a) epic (prose: epic, fairy tale, novel, novel, fable, story, short story, art memoir, essay); b) lyrical (poetry, poem, ballad, song, anthem, elegy.epigram); c) dramatic (drama, tragedy, comedy, melodrama, vaudeville); d) combined (lyric-epic work, ode, art journalism, drama extravaganza, smile).
Scope – scientific activity, scientific and technical progress, education.
The main purpose is to present the consequences of research on man, society, natural phenomena, substantiate hypotheses, prove the truth of theories, classification and systematization of knowledge, explanation of phenomena, excitation of the reader’s intellect to comprehend them.
clarity (conceptuality) and subjectivity of interpretations; logical sequence and provability of the statement; generalization of concepts and phenomena; objective analysis; accuracy and conciseness of statements; argumentation and persuasiveness of statements; unambiguous explanation of cause-and-effect relations; detailed conclusions.
The main language tools are aimed at informing, cognition, influence and are characterized by:
a large number of scientific terminology (transcription, turbulence, distillation, reorganization, atomic mass, etc.); availability of schemes, tables, graphs, diagrams, maps, systems of mathematical, physical, chemical, etc. signs and badges; operating with abstract, mostly foreign words (theorem, vacuum, sine, paragraph, qualification, slag, etc.); using purely scientific phraseology, stable terminological phrases; involvement of quotations and references to primary sources; as a rule, the lack of author’s individual manner and emotionally expressive vocabulary; the presence of a clear compositional structure of the text (sequential division into sections, parts, paragraphs, sub-paragraphs, paragraphs, paragraphs on the use of numerical or letter numbering); in addition to the predominant use of nouns and relative adjectives, there are verb forms, often impersonal, generalized or indefinite, usually of the present tense; stating certain phenomena and facts; a significant role is played by adverbial and adjective inversions, which additionally characterize actions, objects and phenomena; monologue nature of texts; the predominance of various complex sentences of standard expressions (clichés).
Scientific style due to the diversity of branches of science and education consists of the following substrates:
a) actually scientific) with genres of texts: monograph, review, article, scientific report of the message, course and diploma works, abstract, thesis) which, in turn, is divided into scientific and technical and scientific and humanitarian texts; b) popular science – used for intelligible, accessible presentation of information about the consequences of complex research for non-specialists, using in non-special journals and books, even the means of artistic and journalistic styles; c) scientific and educational – available in textbooks, lectures, conversations for accessible, logical and figurative presentation and includes 123helpme.me the use of elements of emotionality.
Sphere of use – socio-political, socio-industrial, cultural and educational activities, education.
to solve important topical, topical socio-political problems by information and propaganda methods; active influence on the reader (listener), motivating him to activity, the need to take a certain public position, change views or form new ones; propaganda of certain thoughts, beliefs, ideas, theories and active agitation for their implementation in everyday life.
accessibility of language and formation (orientation to the general public); a combination of logical evidence and polemical presentation; fusion of exact names, dates, events, places, participants; expression of scientific propositions and facts by emotionally expressive imagery; the presence of a number of bright means of positive or negative author’s interpretation, which is mostly biased; extensive use of artistic means (epithets, comparisons, metaphors, hyperbole, etc.).
Basic language tools:
synthesis of elements of scientific, official-business, artistic and conversational styles; vocabulary is saturated with socio-political and socio-economic terms, appeals, slogans (electorate, multiparty system, privatization, etc.); ambiguous figurative vocabulary, emotionally-evaluative words (political elite, epoch-making choice, etc.), expressive steady phrases (intellectual potential, unanimous choice, record boundary), periphrases (black gold – coal, oil, light planets – forests, etc .) are used. ); the figurative use of scientific, sports, musical, military and other terms (orbits of cooperation, presidential start, etc.); from morphological means foreign suffixes and Art. (ist), – ator, – action, etc. (polemicist, revanchist, provocateur); pseudo prefixes; – neo-, sures-, etc. tre- and others. (pseudo-theory, neocolonialism, superpower, international); the syntax of journalistic style is characterized by different types of interrogative, exclamatory and motivating sentences, the reverse order of words, complex sentences of complex type with repeated conjunctions and no.); key, crucial are apt, aphoristic, intriguing headlines; apt, aphoristic, intriguing headlines are crucial.
Journalistic style by genres, language features and way of presenting information is divided into the following substrates:
a) the style of the media – the media (magazines, postcards), radio, television. etc); b) artistic and journalistic style (pamphlets, feuilletons, political reports, essays, etc.); c) essays (short essays of exquisite form); d) scientific and journalistic style (literary-critical articles, reviews, reviews, etc.).
Scope – private correspondence. This style can be an integral part of other styles, such as fiction, journalism ("Message" by I. Vyshensky, "Letters from the farm" by P. Kulish, etc.).
The main features – the presence of a certain composition: the beginning, which contains a respectful address; the main part, which reveals the content of the letter; the ending where the writing is summarized, and sometimes the postscript. (R. S. – postscript to the completed letter after the signature).
The main language tools are a combination of elements of artistic, journalistic and conversational styles.
Modern epistolary style has become more concise (telegraphic), reduced the amount of previously required introductory appeals and final politeness.
Scope – religion and church.
Purpose – to serve the religious needs of both the individual and society as a whole. The confessional style is embodied in religious services, sermons, prayers (oral form) and in the "Bible" and other church books, books, relics, etc. (written form).
purely ecclesiastical terminology and words – symbols; indirect word order in a sentence and phrase; a significant number of metaphors, allegories, comparisons; the presence of archaisms.
Confessional style differs from other styles by unusual solemnity, sublimity.
Organizational and business style
Its functional bedding.
In Art. 11. The Law on Languages states: "The language of work, office work and documentation, as well as the relationship between state, party, public bodies of enterprises, institutions and organizations is the Ukrainian language."
Formal business style – a functional type of language that serves for communication in political, social and economic life, legislation, in the field of management of administrative and economic activities.
The main purpose is to regulate business relations in the above areas to serve the public needs of people in typical situations.
Under the functional variety of language should be understood as a system of language units, methods of their separation and use, due to the social objectives of speech.
Speech in the field of management is characterized by the science of specific features. Participants in business communication are bodies and management units – organizations, institutions, enterprises, officials, employees, The nature and content of information links in which they can be involved depends on the place of the institution in the hierarchy of government, its competence, functional content.
These relations are stable and regulated by current legal norms.
The specificity of business communication is that regardless of who is the direct compiler of the document and to whom it is directly addressed, the official author and addressee of the document is almost always the organization as a whole.
Another important characteristic of business communication is the contract for targeted information.
A significant factor in influencing business communicationand the nature of management information is the repetition of actions and situations. Management is always a "game by the rules". As a consequence, the repetition of management information leads to the regular use of the same language all the time.
The next characteristic feature of business communication is the thematic limitation of the range of tasks that the organization solves, and this in turn is a consequence of a certain stability of its function.
Thus, we can distinguish the following properties of management information in business communication:
official character; targeting; repetition; thematic limitations.
The specificity of the official business style lies in certain stylistic features (features) that are unique to it, namely:
neutral tone of presentation of the content only in the literal sense; accuracy and clarity must be combined with conciseness, brevity and consistency of presentation of facts; documentary (each official paper must have the character of a document), the presence of details that have a certain order, which allows you to keep the traditional stable forms for a long time; the presence of established monotonous language expressions, high standardization of expression; strict regulation of the text for a clear organization divides the text into paragraphs, subsections.
These main features are decisive in the formation of a system of language units and methods of their use in tests of business (management) documents.